Bergamo and Bologna
Bergamo is a city 40 km northeast of Milan at the foot of the Alps, the administrative center of the province of the same name. Conventionally, the city is divided into the old (“Upper Town”) on a hill height of 380 m above sea level, rich in ancient attractions and new (“Lower Town”), modern – at its foot. You can get to the upper city by funicular or by one of the streets climbing up.
According to an ancient legend, the city was founded by Chidnoy, the son of the ancestor of the Ligur, who named him Barra. In the 6th century BC. the Etruscans changed the face of the city by building their defenses. In 550 BC the Etruscans were replaced by the Gauls of Kenoman, who renamed the city Verhheim, that is, “the city on the mountain.” When Rome extended its power to all of Italy, the city was called Bergomum; the Romans surrounded it with walls, rebuilt in the Middle Ages so that their perimeter coincided with the Roman. After the Longobard and Frankish rule, Bergamo became an independent city-state, uniting areas that retained their own church and administrative management. In the period from the 15th to the 18th century, Bergamo was part of the Venetian Republic, it was at this time that the city acquired most of its famous buildings.
The “Upper Town” is recommended to visit Piazza Vecia – the center of the city where the Palazzo della Reggione – the medieval town hall of the 12th century with figures of lions are located, the Palazzo Nuovo – dates from the 17th century, which now houses the city library, and also Torre del Campagnone – the tower on which is daily the evening ringing is heard; Piazza del Duomo is the religious center of the city. Here is the Baroque Cathedral of the 17th century, the Romanesque church of Santa Maria Maggiore of the 12th century, whose interior is baroque, and the octagonal small baptistery, the Colleoni Chapel – a masterpiece of the Lombard Renaissance. The castle of La Rocca, built by one of the Dukes of Visconti, is located in the western part of the city, which currently houses two museums: the Archaeological Museum and the Museum of Natural Sciences. Museums such as the Museum of the History of the City and the Museum of Donizetti are also interesting. We recommend visiting the Lorenzo Rota Botanical Gardens, where about 900 species of alpine, Lombard and exotic plants are represented. Palaces of the Bergamian nobility: the families of Terzi, Moroni, Medolago-Albani, Alardi.
The Lower City is famous for its wide boulevards, hotels, shops, restaurants and bars. The main attraction of the “Lower City” is one of the best Italian art galleries – Pinacoteca del Academy Carrara. Her collection is represented by 1800 canvases of the 15-19th centuries (among them the works of Pisanello, Botticelli, Bellini, Mathenya, Rafael Santi, Moroni, Bastenis, Galgario, Tiepolo, Canaletto and Pichio), works of Italian and foreign masters of the 20th century (Bochioni, Balla, Morandi , Campiglia, Casorati, Savigno, De Chihiro, Kandinsky, Sutherland and Manzu), as well as drawings, prints, sculptures, porcelain and antique furniture.
Bologna is a city in the center of Italy, the administrative center of the province of the same name, as well as the capital of the Emilia-Romagna region. Bologna was a Roman colony and the main city of the Renaissance, which retained its medieval appearance.
It is an important university center in Italy and Europe. It has its own airport and underground metro. Bologna is a student city. The population of the city during the sessions increases from 400 to 500 thousand people! Its University, founded in 1088, is known in Europe as the oldest existing university in the world. From the first years of the university’s existence, a good tradition has been established in it: not only Italians studied here, but also students from almost all European countries. It was an important center of European intellectual life in the Middle Ages. Among his students were Dante, Petrarch, Thomas a Srop, Erasmus of Rotherdam, Copernicus, Bocaccio, Archbishop of Canterbury, Dürer.
Over the centuries of history, Bologna has acquired many nicknames:
The “Bologna Scientist” refers to its famous university and a huge number of students who have been filling its streets for more than nine centuries.
“Bologna Oily” refers to the local cuisine, which is considered the best in Italy. The city is located in the fertile valley of the Po River, and the rich local cuisine is based on meat and cheese. Bologna is famous for its sausages, pasta, cheese, wine and ice cream. For example, Tagliatelle in Bolognese (Tagliatelle alla bolognese = pasta with meat sauce), dumplings, and mortadella (pale pink with white squares sausage). The Italians themselves also call their city Mortadella.
Bologna is also called “Bologna Red” due to the abundance of brick buildings. The historic city center with its medieval street plan, leaning towers, and vibrant red-orange buildings amazes the public. Red Bologna was called, also referring to its left-sided policy.
Another nickname of Bologna – “Basket City” – means that basketball is preferred to football here.