Milan is Italy’s second largest city (population 1.7 million inhabitants), the administrative center of the Lombardy region, located in the central part of the Padan Plain, at the intersection of Europe’s largest railways and roads leading from the passes through the Alps. The city is the capital of business life, finance, fashion and the media, as well as Italy’s largest industrial, political and cultural center.
Milan is Italy’s most hardworking city. It is a city of wealth, the heart of the Italian economy. It is also the largest transport interchange in the country, here is the largest international airport, most of the railway communications and the best metro in Italy. Milan is connected by shipping channels to the Po River, making it one of Italy’s main ports. Milan also excels in an area that really matters to many Italians, winning football victories over the rest of the country from year to year. The city is famous for its museums, art galleries, theaters, architectural monuments, educational institutions (university, conservatory, Academy of Arts, etc.).
From the history of Milan
Milan is one of the oldest cities in Italy. It arose as a Celtic city in about 600 BC. e.: one of the Gali tribes led by Beloveso in search of new and more convenient places for settlement came to this place and founded the first settlement here. The location of the city was favorable for its development, since the paths that led to the land of the Franks passed through it. The name of the city Mediolanum came from its location: “medio” – in the middle, “plano” – plain. In 223g. BC. the Roman consuls Cornelio Shipione and Claudio Marcello set out on the Mediolanum and took it. The process of turning the Celtic city into a Roman one took place calmly and soon Milan became the administrative center of the 11th district. At this time, Milan becomes the seat of the Western Emperor. In the IV century AD, during the time of Bishop St. Ambrose and Emperor Theodosius I, the city quickly became the capital of the western part of the Roman Empire. In 536, Milan was taken by barbarian tribes, the population was exterminated, the city was plundered and completely destroyed. The restoration of Milan began only after the advent of the Lombards, which in 774 were replaced by Franks of Charlemagne. The conquest of power by the Franks was more of a religious nature, so in Milan the figure of the archbishop acquired special significance. In 1158, Emperor Federico 1st Barbarossa invaded Italian territory and took Milan. In 1167, the rebellious communes of Lombardy created the Northern League and in 1176 they defeated the Barbarossa troops at the Battle of Legnano.
After the Ostrogothic and Lombardy periods in the XI century, the city regained its role and led the movement of other Italian cities of Lombardy in gaining greater independence from the Holy Roman Empire. During the plague of 1349, Milan was one of the few places in Europe that were not affected by the epidemic.
During the Renaissance, Milan was ruled by the dukes of the Visconti and Sforza families, at whose court artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Donato Bramante worked. After trying to conquer the rest of northern Italy in the 15th century, Milan was conquered by France, and then, at the beginning of the 16th century, Spain.
At the beginning of the 18th century, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Austria replaced Spain as the Milan overlord. During the Napoleonic Wars, Milan was occupied in 1796 by Napoleon’s troops and in 1797 became the capital of the Cisalpine Republic, which actually became the Italian Republic in 1802, and the Italian Kingdom in 1805. At the end of the wars, the city became one of the main centers of Italian nationalism, regaining its independence and restoring the integrity of Italy.
In 1859 (after the second Italian War of Independence), Milan, along with all of Lombardy, overthrew Austrian rule and entered the kingdom of Sardinia (which was transformed into the kingdom of Italy in 1861). In the first century of the history of the united Italy, Milan made a huge contribution to its culture, since many literary, philosophical and political teachings found fertile soil here, and the city itself became one of the centers of European civilization.
An important industrial center in Italy, Milan was the target of carpet bombing during World War II. The city was bombed even after Pietro Badoglio surrendered to its allied forces in 1943. In fact, Milan was part of the puppet state of the Italian Social Republic Mussolini and an important command center of the German army stationed in Italy. By the time the war in Italy was finally over, on April 25, 1945, Milan was badly damaged, and the suburbs of Precotto and Terro were completely destroyed. After the war, the city was rebuilt and again became an important financial and industrial center of Italy. Always at the forefront of culture, in first place in the economy and industry, today Milan is more than ever a vivid representative of modern Italy.